Egyptian is a very distinctive dialect. There are several words that give it away. You've got فين (feen, where), كده (kida, like this), أوي (awi, very), and they pronounce all their ج (j) as English G's. It's hard to confuse Egyptian with another dialect once you've had some exposure to it. This post is basically a sampling of some very Egyptian phrases.
1. يا راجل انت جننت ولا ايه؟ (Ya Ragil enta gannent wala ee) - Man, have you gone crazy or what?
The word ولا means "or" in Egyptian and in other dialects. It's a combination of و (and) and لا (no), but just remember that it means "or". جنن means "to go crazy". The word مجنون (crazy) which is usually one of the first words any Arabic student learns comes from the same root.
2. بقلك ايه (ba'ulak ee) - I'll tell you what...
This is used the same way we use it in English. You can say it before you tell someone something.
3. هو ده الكلام (huwa da alkalaam) - That's what I'm talking about
Literally this means "that is the talk". When something goes the way you want it to or someone says something you agree with you can use this phrase.
4. مش كده (mish kida)- Isn't it like that? مش هيك, أليس كذلك
It takes a lot of exposure to different Arabic dialects before you can differentiate between accents, but before you can do that there are words that are very specific to certain dialects. The word كده is specific to Egyptian. If you hear it then you are definitely listening to Egyptian dialect. كده literally means "like this".
5. ايه إللي جابك هنا (ee illi gaabak hena) - What brings you here?
This can be said in a mean way or if you're just wondering why someone is there. It's all about tone.
6. بجد (bigad) - For real
This is the same as Levantine عن جد. It can be translated as "really", "for real", "seriously", etc.
7. بصو بقى يا جماعة (busu ba'a ya gamaa'a) - Look, everyone.
This would be said to get the attention of a group of people. بص means "look". بقى is a strange word that basically just gives emphasis. It also means "to become" in some sentences.
8. رايحة فين يا حببتي (rayha feen ya habibti) - Where are you going baby?
I put this one here because it's very Egyptian. فين is "where". It comes from في اين which is MSA. Also, the way they say حببتي (habibti) instead of حبيبتي (habibati).
9. وحشتني قوي (wahashtani awi) - I missed you very much.
This phrase took a while to wrap my mind around. You would think it would be وحشتك (wahashtak), right? After all, in English we say I missed you. But in Egyptian they do it the other way around. So if you wanted to say "Did you miss me?" you'd say وحشتك؟ , but "I missed you" is وحشتني. I think of it as "You made me miss you." The action is being done to the other person.